The definition of the term evolution is the basis of the Organismic Frankfurt Theory and determines its argumentation. We understand the term evolution under the Frankfurt Theory to mean the gradual irreversible transformation of organisms through generations and over time.
Definition: The organism
(1) The chemical processes typical for life take place only in aqueous solutions; they are spatially held together bya flexible covering, in the simplest case by the cell membrane; these entities are individuals. From a physical-mechanical perspective, they are hydrostatic soft bodies. From this fact, a working concept is developed with which the course of the lines of evolution can be reconstructed (see below “Reconstruction as a working process”).
(2) All living beings absorb material and energy and convert them so that they maintain their life processes, building themselves up so they can again procure material and energy, grow and reproduce; that is termed bionomic structure. From a physical-thermodynamic perspective, they are material and energy converters. This results in the understanding of evolution as a natural process.
Pursuant to these two determinations, we describe the living beings as organisms.
Organisms as evolving systems
As energy converters, the organisms are subject to the laws of thermodynamics. In accordance with the second law (the entropy clause), entropy increases in the working system, whereby the entire system gradually changes. This applies to the individual organism, just as it does to the chain of generations. It follows that the evolution of organisms is by definition a physical process.
The transformation of material and energy is the consequence of the material properties of the materials of which the organisms are built.
Physics (thermodynamics) explains the reason for organism evolution; biology examines the processes of change actually taking place in the organisms. Accordingly, change is in progress everywhere. Its outcome is influenced by various factors that affect the organism. Internal factors are primarily the gene mutations as particularly conspicuous and “influential” events; other internal factors are changes at the subsequent stages of chemical transformations, leading to the finished individual. External factors follow that provide the individuals with favorable or unfavorable living and thus reproduction conditions.
Darwin’s concept of selection is expanded: selection takes place not only through the relationship to the environment, but rather already at several levels within the organism: molecular, physiological, structurally mechanical (called “internal selection” in the Frankfurt Evolution Theory). Only once there is a self-contained organism can it be shown whether and how it is compatible with the environment.
In addition: the concept of selection as an active verb originates in Darwin’s breeding practice; selection is not, however, an action, but an experience of suffering: the organism fails, as the case may be, thanks to its own inadequacy. Only now an „external selection“ takes place, to which Darwin’s term „selection“ applies.
Due to constant change, the products of reproduction cannot be completely identical, neither with their parents’ generation, nor among each other; even monozygotic twins are not completely alike, despite being of the same genetic material.
Organisms enter into every space in which they can live to their capability – in a self-determined way, autonomously. They have a decisive effect on their environment through their presence in space and their metabolic processes. This can achieve global dimensions: the oxygen atmosphere and the carbonate of sediments (“lime”) are organism products.
The constant changes within mean that parts in the body specialize in different tasks. They make themselves different in that way; this is termed differentiation. In this way, they increase the system’s efficiency: from a thermodynamic perspective, they achieve the degree of efficiency. For organisms this refers to the number of progeny produced that are viable and capable of reproduction – those with the higher level of efficiency gradually gain ground in number.
On that note, evolution can be explained in a popular, simple manner: a lot is invented, what works, lives; what doesn’t work, dies; and what works better than others, gradually gains ground in number.
Population and diversification
At the margins of the range of a population, it comes to such radical differences that these variants can no longer reproduce together. They become different, diverse. (This is the classical explanation of “allopatric speciation,” as John Gulick put forward already in Darwin’s time, as did Ernst Mayr in the 20th century.)
In addition, such variants can also arise within populations that can only reproduce with their own kind, and in this way are isolated from others (this is “sympatric” speciation).
The organisms are the subjects of evolution. They specialize in specific ways of life. In this way, from one type of body design two or more typres can evolve. This leads to the diversity that actually exists.
Evolution – a morphoprocess
The existence of the organisms and the evolution of the organisms are merely two sides of the same coin, namely a continuous process. It started almost four billion years ago with the first structures composed of organic molecules (carbon compounds) that began a regular turnover of material and energy. It permanently has to produce new body designs that we perceive as forms, as shapes, and that are the subject of descriptive morphology. It is a morphogenetic process, or morphoprocess in brief (Vernatzki). The organisms are at the same time its carriers and its occasional materializations.